The author discusses the extent of religious observance and the strength of Jewish identity among the "non-religious." He argues that there is an absence of a significant Jewish dimension in mainstream Israeli culture and attempts to explain this seeming contradiction. Liebman also discusses the Jewish identities of Israeli Jews who define themselves as religious (dati), focusing on three segments of that population: the haredim (Ultra-Orthodox), the West Bank settlers, and the modern Orthodox. Despite Jewishness being deeply imbedded into the behavior of the Israeli Jew, Liebman argues that in the realm of public culture, a bifurcation of Judaism (Judaism on the one hand and Israeli-ness on the other) has emerged. He states that how one behaves at the private and familial level is less affected than ever by the nature of the public culture.