This tension between "modern" American values in marriage and "traditional" Jewish ones is a theme that runs all the way through the American Jewish experience from the very beginning. Indeed, far from being a new community challenge, as so many believe, intermarriage is actually one of American Jewry's oldest concerns, dating all the way back to 1656 when one of America's first known Jews, Solomon Pietersen, married a local Protestant and raised his daughter in her mother's faith. From then onward, intermarriage has served as something of a barometer of intergroup relations in America; the two rise and fall in tandem. Periods marked by growing interreligious harmony witness growing amounts of intermarriage; periods marked by burgeoning interreligous hatred see intermarriage rates fall. The entire subject of intermarriage raised thorny questions that American Jews continue to confront to this day. How to respond to intermarriages? How to respond to intermarrieds who sought to maintain their Jewish ties? How to promote in-group marriage without damaging social ties to non-Jews? How to survive in an American religious environment that was becoming increasingly open and competitive?