In November 2008, I gave a presentation on my research about Black Jews and was asked a question that I've continued to think about ever since. The presentation was on Hatzaad Harishon, a multiracial nonprofit organization that valued klal Yisrael (Jewish peoplehood) and worked to gain greater recognition of and legitimacy for Black Jews in New York City and the surrounding areas from 1964-1972. The question was simple enough: "How many Black Jews are there?" In trying to offer an answer, however, I brushed up against a host of issues that the term Black Jew raisesâ"for Jewish peoplehood, for definitional claims, and for what Adam Newton terms "blackjewishrelations." In order to answer the question, one first has to define who Black Jews are and that, like any question of Jewish identity, is no simple task.