Great Britain successfully adopted a more active role in the Middle East peace process, especially as it is the location for an international conference in London in early 2005. Belgium voted pro-Palestinian during UN sessions regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Jewish students regularly faced threats on campuses in Britain. The number of antisemitic incidents in Great Britain was unprecedented in 2004. Likewise, Jews were the main victims of racist violence in France. Italy remained one of the U.S.'s staunchest allies, despite widespread Italian opposition to U.S. policy in Iraq. Italy also maintained very good relations with Israel. The "Geneva Initiative" was signed in Switzerland, calling for a comprehensive resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
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Kochan, Lionel. Kochan, Miriam. Waintrater, Meir. Schnek, Georges. Friedmann, Elise. Gruber, Ruth E. Sion, Brigitte. Review of the Year (2005) in Foreign Countries: Western Europe. American Jewish Year Book. American Jewish Committee (AJC),Jewish Publication Society (JPS). 2005: