Great Britain witnessed an economic decline, a decline in popularity of its government, and the shut down of several organizations suspected of working with terrorists. France's new president experienced a series of challenges. Its foreign policy received popular support, unlike its economic and social policies. The "Islamic veil" affair divided the nation and resulted in the realization of a growing Muslim population in France. The xenophobic right increased in strength in Belgium. Belgium condemned antisemitism despite the increase of antisemitic actions in the country. Italian Prime Minister Berlusconi appeared as an American ally in the Iraq War and one of Europe's most pro-Israel leaders. The Vatican, on the other hand, criticized the Iraq War. Switzerland, a characteristically neutral nation, opposed the Iraq War.
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Kochan, Lionel. Kochan, Miriam. Waintrater, Meir. Schnek, Georges. Friedmann, Elise. Gruber, Ruth E. Sion, Brigitte. Review of the Year (2004) in Foreign Countries: Western Europe. American Jewish Year Book. American Jewish Committee (AJC),Jewish Publication Society (JPS). 2004: