A scarcity of resources relative to the size of social needs at the end of the 1960s suggests that a rational (quantitative) approach to community planning could benefit social service agencies. This hypothesis was tested by the Cleveland Jewish Community Federation, and a series of a papers analyzes an extended thought experiment that focused on that community. "Design for Systems Research in a Federation" by Elliot Markus, Judah Rubinstein, and Burton Dean serves as an overview of the project. "Systems Analysis and Description of a Jewish Communal System" by Arnold Reisman, Norman Eisenberg, and Alan Beckman uses the Delphi method to examine the data and concludes that the "solution seems feasible." Finally, "Measurement of Output in a Jewish Communal System" by Samuel Mantel, Allan Service, and Richard Ronis provides a more in-depth exploration of the study, ultimately concluding that mathematical models of determining "client-service-agency package output" are necessary tools in aiding human decision makers in social welfare planning.
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Olshansky, Bernard. Blum, Arthur. Koleski, Raymond A. Gregory, Ralph. The Application of Operations Research to Community Planning. Journal of Jewish Communal Service. Jewish Communal Service Association of North America (JCSA),National Conference of Jewish Communal Service. Fall 1969: