In this article, the authors discuss the work of the Jewish Vocational Services (JVS) of St. Paul, Minnesota, specifically in regards to the relationship between the psychological problems of post-holocaust refugees, and the vocational problems they experience as new immigrants in America. Furthermore, the paper centers around two broad divisions: first, the client's problems of becoming absorbed into the vocational life of the community, and second, the counselor and agency orientation to working with the client's problems. Finally, the authors make clear that the JVS's ultimate aim is to help the immigrant become independent in his or her approach to vocational planning and to facing realities (i.e., that their new American job would not be as prestigious as the one they held in Europe).
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Shapiro, Solomon. Berman, Isadora. Psychological Problems Met in Counseling and Placement of Refugees. The Jewish Social Service Quarterly. Jewish Communal Service Association of North America (JCSA),National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare. December 1949: