The authors state that like others, they are increasingly anxious about the prospects for a healthy and vital relationship between the two largest Jewish communities in the world. In the past, the fear which animated Israeli policy makers was that American Jews would refuse to support Israeli policies. Such concerns emerged most dramatically when Israeli policies were opposed by the American government; for example during the Sinai War and the intifada. Drawing, perhaps, upon classic Zionist images of Galuti (Exilic) Jews, Israeli policy-makers feared that American Jews were insufficiently committed to Israel or lacked the courage to support Israel in the face of American governmental opposition and negative public opinion. On the other hand, many Israelis continue to perceive American Jews as troubled by issues of "dual-loyalty.